Fairly recently scavenging was thought to be restricted to a few groups of 'classic' and sometimesfacultative scavengers and vultures, but what most of the more recent researches has shown isthat a much wider range of groups and species are scavenger. There is a need to investigate thisdiversity and interactions with different communities of avian and mammalian scavengers inTurkey. The diversity of scavenger vertebrate species, their behaviour, and interactions betweenindividuals are investigated. This study was conducted in Dörtdivan Vulture Restaurant, Bolu,Turkey. Twenty five species are recorded (eighteen birds and seven mammal) while feeding onthe carcasses. The diversity of vertebrates feeding on the carcass is varied according to the carcasstype. Opportunistic nonobligatory scavengers are more dominant than obligatory scavengers inthis study. The intraspecific and interspecific competitions are detected between scavengers. Thisis the first assessment of scavenger vertebrates in Turkey. It could be the useful reference for newassessments in the future.

This article introduces a modern optimization algorithm to solve optimization problems. GroupOptimization (GO) is based on concept that uses all agents to update population of algorithm.Every agent of population could to be used for population updating. For these purpose two groupsis specified for any agent. One group for good agents and another group for bad agents. Thesegroups is used for updating position of each agent. twentythree standard benchmark testfunctions are evaluated using GO and then results are compared with eight other optimizationmethod.

In this study, thirdparty logistics (3PL) service provider selection problem is handled for aforeign trade company that exports the products with high quality level obtained by outsourcing,and who has problems regarding both cost, delivery quality and delivery time. In this direction, 7criteria are determined for effective evaluation of the performance of the 5 logistics serviceproviders the company is working for and the determination of the most suitable 3PL serviceprovider according to the property of the orders (quantity, mode of conveyance, transportationchannel, etc.). The priority levels of service providers are calculated by using these criteria in thecombination of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), and Technique for Order Preference bySimilarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). Then, a goal programming (GP) model that answers thequestion of which service provider to choose for which order, considering these priority valuesand the 12 system constraints and 5 objectives that the company encountered in real life isproposed. This model is the first one proposed in the literature for the selection of 3PL serviceproviders for multimodal international transport with consistent results. The model is solved forthe current 10 orders using the last 1year data of the company and the most appropriate 3PLservice provider combination is obtained. As a result of the solution of the problem with thismethodology, an improvement is achieved about 7% for the rate of delivery on time, 33% for bid bill consistency rate, and 29% for the problematic delivery rate.

In this paper, we considered a twoobjective machinescheduling problem under sequencedependent setup time, release date and due date constraints. The problem is formulated as amultiobjective mixedinteger programming model. Two conflicting objectives are consideredas minimization of maximum completion time (makespan) and total tardiness. Despite themost use of metaheuristics in this kind of multiobjective problems, here, we try to solve theproblem by transforming the twoobjectives as a single objective using scalarizationtechniques. Test instances are generated as proposed in the scheduling literature. The solutionsare obtained using Weighted Sum Scalarization, Benson’s Method and Pascoletti−SerafiniMethod. In addition, a comparison of scalarization techniques using Δ performance metric isgiven on the considered problem instances. The obtained results are evaluated and Δ values,which were obtained for Benson’s method, are mostly better than other techniques for thegenerated test problems.

The powertogas technology is considered to provide the means of storing surplus renewableenergy in the form of synthetic natural gas. The study analyses the P2G system with respect tothe three main components i.e. electrolysers (especially solid oxide electrolysers that have ahigher operating temperature), the methanation reactor and the synthetic methane injectionsystem. Efficiency of the individual components is evaluated with three different configurationsemploying heat recovery at various sections of the P2G system. The model has been studied inthe ANSYS environment. The configurations are finally evaluated for an optimized solution asregards the efficiency of the entire system and the quality of the produced synthetic.

A new distribution called New Mixture of ExponentialGamma Distribution is presented in thispaper. This new distribution contains exponential and standardized Lindley distributions as submodels. Some of the structural properties of the proposed distribution which include the survivalfunction, hazard rate function, moments, moment generating function, quantile function,distribution of order statistics and Renyi entropy are obtained. The maximum likelihood method ofestimation was used to estimate the parameters of the distribution. A Simulation study was carriedout to examine the performance and accuracy of the maximum likelihood estimates of the proposeddistribution. An application of the proposed distribution to two real lifetime datasets is presented toillustrate its usefulness and superiority over some existing related models.

Many optimal reinsurance studies in the literature only take into consideration the insurer.However, there are two parties in reinsurance contracts. The aim of the study is to contribute tothe optimal reinsurance literature by considering the interests of both the insurer and the reinsurer.A reasonable compromise between their interests is desired. Then, we examine the optimalretention problem that minimizes the absolute value of the difference between the insurer’s andthe reinsurer’s profits under stoploss and excessofloss reinsurance arrangements. With a nonnegative random variable, we incorporate the stochastic essence of the aggregate loss for thereinsurer’s and insurer’s profits into the model. For reinsurance premium calculation we use twodifferent premium principles and for aggregate loss we use exponential, Pareto and lognormaldistributions. The results of the studies only deal with the benefits of the insurer and the studiesconsider both the benefits of the insurer and reinsurer are compared. Our findings can be helpfulfor insurance companies and reinsurer companies in their decision making task. For simulationstudies in the model MATLAB programming language is used

In this study, an experimental research was carried out for the production of plasticinjection molds with conformal cooling channels by laminated brazing method. In thiscontext, plastic injection mold conformal cooling channels was designed andmanufactured. In order to obtain threedimensional complex cooling channels, mold coreswere separated into layers and processed as plates in different thicknesses. These plateswere combined with the vacuum brazing method. For the comparison, another mold witha linear cooling channel was produced. Plastic parts were produced by using both molds.In the experimental study, the cooling time, the surface temperature of the product andthe distortions in the product were examined. According to the results, it was determinedthat by using of conformal cooling channels, the cooling time decreased by 22%. It wasalso observed that there was nearly 50% decrease in the amount of warpage on theproduced plastic parts.

We show that the threedimensional system of difference equations𝑥𝑛+1 =𝑎𝑥𝑛𝑧𝑛−1𝑧𝑛−𝛽+ 𝛾, 𝑦𝑛+1 =𝑏𝑦𝑛𝑥𝑛−1𝑥𝑛−𝛾+ 𝛼, 𝑧𝑛+1 =𝑐𝑧𝑛𝑦𝑛−1𝑦𝑛−𝛼+ 𝛽 , 𝑛 ∈ 𝑁0 ,where the parameters 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, 𝛼, 𝛽, 𝛾 and the initial conditions 𝑥−𝑖 , 𝑦−𝑖 , 𝑧−𝑖 , 𝑖 ∈ {0,1}, are nonzeroreal numbers, can be solved. Using the obtained formulas, we determine the asymptoticbehavior of solutions and give conditions for which periodic solutions exist. Some numericalexamples are given to demonstrate the theoretical results.

A series of Schiff base ligands containing 1,2,4triazole ring were obtained by the addition ofaldehydes to the amino compound under mild conditions in 80–82% yields. A reduction of theseligands with sodium borohydride resulted in Schiff base reduction products. New ligands wereinvestigated for their antioxidant activities such as DPPH (2,2diphenyl1picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(2,2’azinobis (3ethylbenzothizoline6sulphonic acid) diammonium salt) radical scavengingand reducing power. 1H and 13CNMR spectra (δ, ppm) were observed on a Varian Mercury 200MHz spectrophotometer as standard substance using tetramethylsilane Match constants (Jvalues) were given as Hertz. NMR coefficients are truncated as follows: s=singlet, d=dublet,t=triplet, m=multiplet signal. Combustion analysis was performed on a Carlo Erba 1106 elementalanalyzer. All the compounds gave C, H, and N analysis results within ±0.6 % of the theoreticalvalues. The IR spectra (υ, cm−1) were viewed with a PerkinElmer 1600 FTIR spectrometer inKBr pellets.
