M. Turan ÇAĞLAR
(Işık Üniversitesi, İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi, Uluslararası İlişkiler Bölümü, İstanbul, Türkiye)
Yıl: 2020Cilt: 29Sayı: 1ISSN: 2602-3598 / 2618-6330Sayfa Aralığı: 143 - 163Türkçe

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ABD’nin Irak Müdahalesinde Güvenliğin Özelleşmesi: Sözleşmeli Personel ve Özel Askeri ve Güvenlik Şirketlerinin Rolü ve Etkileri
ABD’nin 2003 yılında Irak’a müdahalesi ile birlikte özel askeri ve güvenlik şirketleri, ABD’nin en önemli ortaklarından biri olmuş ve hatta sözleşmeli personel, Irak’ta koalisyon güçleri içerisinde ABD’den sonraki en büyük grup haline gelmiştir. 2003 yılı sonrası ABD yönetimleri, Irak Savaşı’nın artan ekonomik, insani ve siyasi maliyetlerini sözleşmeli personel üzerinden dışsallaştırmaya çalışmıştır. 2011 yılı öncesi Irak’ta ABD askerlerinin yanında yer alan sözleşmeli personel, 2011 yılı sonrası ABD askerlerinin yerine görev almaya başlamıştır. ABD yönetimleri, özel şirketler aracılığıyla bazı maliyetleri dışsallaştırabilse de sözleşmeli personelin insan hakları ihlalleri, ABD’nin Irak ve bölgedeki ününe zarar vermiştir. Sözleşmeli personel ayrıca Irak’ta şiddet uygulayan ve şiddete maruz kalan aktörlerin başında gelmiş ve ülke içerisindeki şiddetin yükselmesinde rol oynamıştır. Irak’ta ABD aracılığıyla güvenliğin özelleşmesi ise Irak’taki güvenlik kavramını dönüştürmüştür. Özel askeri ve güvenlik şirketleri ve çalışanlarının hukuki statüleri ve denetimleri, güvenlik kavramının dışlayıcı bir hale gelmesi ve güvenliğin piyasalaşması, Irak gibi kırılgan bir ülkede yeni güvenlik sorunlarına yol açmıştır. Özel askeri ve güvenlik şirketlerinin Irak Savaşı boyunca oynadığı roller ise geleneksel güvenlik anlayışı ve şiddet kullanma tekelinin devriyle ilgili Uluslararası İlişkilerde yeni tartışmalara sebep olmuştur.
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