Mustafa MİDİLLİ
(Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi, Ziraat ve Doğa Bilimleri Fakültesi, Kanatlı Hayvan Yetiştiriciliği Bölümü, Bolu, Türkiye)
Mehmet ÖZCAN
(Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi, Mudurnu Süreyya Astarcı Meslek Yüksekokulu, Mudurnu/Bolu, Türkiye)
Yıl: 2020Cilt: 49Sayı: 1ISSN: 1300-8943Sayfa Aralığı: 277 - 286Türkçe

69 0
ALTERNATİF PROTEİN KAYNAĞI OLARAK BÖCEKLERİN KANATLI KARMA YEMLERİNDE KULLANIMI
Dünya nüfusunun artışına paralel olarak artan hayvansal protein ihtiyacını karşılamak amacıyla kanatlı eti ve yumurtaya olan talebin önümüzdeki yıllarda artması beklenmektedir. Bu nedenle kanatlı karma yem üretiminde kullanılan protein kaynaklarına ihtiyaç da büyük ölçüde artacaktır. Islah çalışmaları ile yüksek genetik kapasiteye sahip etlik piliç ve yumurta tavuklarının besin maddesi ve enerji ihtiyaçlarını karşılamak önemlidir. Bu nedenle, yem endüstrisi balık unu gibi pahalı hayvansal kökenli sınırlı protein kaynakları yerine ikame edilebilecek besin madde değeri, sindirilebilirliği yüksek ve üretim miktarı fazla olan yeni protein kaynaklarına ihtiyaç duymaktadır. Son yıllarda alternatif protein kaynağı olarak çeşitli böcek türlerinin etlik piliç, yumurta tavuğu ve hindi gibi kanatlı hayvanların karma yemlerinde balık unu yerine belli oranlarda ikame edilebileceği ve hayvanların performansını olumlu yönde etkilediğini bildiren birçok bilimsel çalışmalar yapılmıştır. Bu derlemede, böcek kökenli alternatif protein kaynaklarının besin madde özellikleri, kanatlı beslenmesinde kullanılma olanakları, avantaj ve dezavantajları, performans ve sağlık durumları üzerine etkilerinin güncel literatür ışığında incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır.
DergiAraştırma MakalesiErişime Açık
  • 1. Adámková, A., Kouřimská, L., Borkovcová, M., Kulma, M., Mlček, J., 2016. Nutritional values of edible coleoptera (Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio and Alphitobius diaperinus) reared in the Czech Republic. Potravinarstvo, 10:663-671.
  • 2. Adeniji, A.A., 2007. Effect of replacing groundnut cake with maggot meal in the diet of broilers. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 6:822-825.
  • 3. Aguilar-Miranda, E.D., López, M.G., Escamilla-Santana, C., Barba de la Rosa, A.P., 2002. Characteristics of maize flour tortilla supplemented with ground Tenebrio molitor larvae. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50(1):192-195.
  • 4. Agunbiade, J.A., Adeyemi, O.A., Ashiru, O.M., Awojobi, H.A., Taiwo, A.A., Oke, D.B., Adekunmisi, A.A., 2007. Replacement of fish meal with maggot meal in cassava based layers’ diets. Japanese Poultry Science, 44:278-282.
  • 5. Anonymous, 2009. How to feed the world in 2050. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (http://www.fao. org/fileadmin/templates/wsfs/docs/expert paper/how to feed the world in 2050.pdf.; Erişim Tarihi: 12.11.2019).
  • 6. Anonymous, 2019a. Incredible insect facts and information (http://www.entomon.net/insect-facts-and-information; Erişim Tarihi: 20.11.2019).
  • 7. Anonymous, 2019b. U.N. Urges Eating Insects; 8 Popular Bugs to Try (https://www. nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/5/130514-edible-insects-entomophagy-science-food-bugs-beetles).
  • 8. Awoniyi, T.A.M., Aletor, V.A., Aina, J.M., 2003. Performance of broiler-chickens fed on maggot meal in place of fish meal. Int. Journal of Poultry Science, 2:271-274.
  • 9. Axtell, R.C., J.J., Arends, 1990. Ecology and management of arthropod pests of poultry. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 35:101-126.
  • 10. Barker, D., Fitzpatrick, M.P., Dierenfeld, E.S., 1998. Nutrient composition of selected whole invertebrates. Zoo Biol. 17:123-134.
  • 11. Black, A., 2014. Nutrient content of the house cricket-Acheta domesticus (http://www.food-insects.com/nutrient-content-house-cricket-acheta-domesticus; Erişim Tarihi:21.11.2019).
  • 12. Broekhoven, S.V., 2015. Quality and safety aspects of mealworms as human food (PhD Thesis). Sarah van Broekhoven, Wageningen University.
  • 13. Cullere, M., Tasoniero, G., Giaccone, V., Acuti, G., Marangon, A., Dalle Zotte, A., 2018. Black soldier fly as dietary protein source for broiler quails: meat proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile, oxidative status and sensory traits. Animal 12(3):640-647.
  • 14. Cutrignelli, M.I., Messina, M., Tulli, F., Randazzo, B., Olivotto, I., Gasco, L., Loponte, R., Bovera, F., 2018. Evaluation of an insect meal of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) as soybean substitute: Intestinal morphometry, enzymatic and microbial activity in laying hens. Research in Veterinary Science 117:209-215.
  • 15. C.V.B., Veevoedertabel, 2007. Chemische samenstellingen en nutritionele waarden van voedermiddelen. Productschap Diervoeder, Den Haag, the Netherlands.
  • 16. Despins, J.L., Axtell, R.C., 1995. Feeding behavior and growth of broiler chicks fed larvae of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus. Poultry Science 74:331-336.
  • 17. Dobermann, D., Field, L.M., Michaelson, L.V., 2019. Using Hermetia illucens to process Ugandan Waragi Waste. Journal of Cleaner Production 211:303-308.
  • 18. Elhag, O.A.O., Zheng, L.Y., Zhou, D.Z., Yu, Z.N., Zhang, J.B., 2014. Discovery of new anti-microbial peptides in black soldier fly and their function. In: Abstract Book Conference Insects to Feed the World, The Netherlands, 14-17 May, p.154.
  • 19. European Commission (EC), 2017. Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/893 of 24 May 2017 amending Annexes I and IV to Regulation (EC) No 999/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Annexes X, XIV and XV to Commission Regulation (EU) No 142/2011 as regards the provisions on processed animal protein (text with EEA relevance). Off. J. Eur. Union. (https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/txt/?uri=celex %3a32017r0893; Erişim Tarihi: 20.112019).
  • 20. Fanatico, A., 1998. Feeding chickens. ATTRA national sustainable agriculture information service (http://ucanr.org/sites/placernevada smallfarms/files/102989.pdf; Erişim Tarihi: 12.11.2019).
  • 21. Finke, M.D., 2002. Complete nutrient composition of commercially raised invertebrates used as food for insectivores. Zoo Biol. 21:269-285.
  • 22. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 2013. Edible insects’ future prospects for food and feed security. Insect as Animal Feed. pp:89-97. (http://www. fao.org/3/i3253e/i3253e.pdf; Erişim Tarihi: 12.11.2019).
  • 23. Ghaly, A.E., Alkoaik, F.N., 2009. The yellow mealworms as a novel source of protein. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4(4):319-331.
  • 24. Gnaedinger, C., Mélin, C., Tran, G., 2015a. Black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. (http://www.feedipedia.org/ node/16388; Erişim Tarihi: 21.11.2019).
  • 25. Gnaedinger, C., Mélin, C., Tran, G., 2015b. Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. (http://www.feedipedia.org/node/16401; Erişim Tarihi: 21.11.2019).
  • 26. Hall, F.G., Jones, O.G., O’Haire, M.E., Liceaga, A.M., 2017. Functional properties of tropical banded cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus) protein hydrolysates. Food Chemistry 224: 414-422, (doi:10.1016/j.foodchem).
  • 27. Hardouin, J., Mahoux, G., 2003. Zootechnie d’insectes-Elevage et utilisation au bénéfice de l’homme et de certains animaux. Bureau pour l’Echange et la Distribution de l’Information sur le Mini-élevage (BEDIM), 164p.
  • 28. Heuzé, V., Tran, G., 2015. Housefly maggot meal, Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. (http://www.feedi pedia.org/node/671; Erişim: 21.11.2019).
  • 29. Huis, A.V., 2013. Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security. Annual Review of Entomology, 58:563-583.
  • 30. Hwangbo, J., Hong, E.C., Jang, A., Kang, H.K., Oh, J.S., Kim, B.W., Park, B.S., 2009. Utilization of house fly-maggots, a feed supplement in the production of broiler chickens. Journal of Environmental Biology, 30(4):609-614.
  • 31. Ido, A., Ohta, T., Iwai, T., Kishida, S.T., Miura, C., Miura, T., 2014. Positive effects of dietary housefly (Musca domestica) pupa for fish and mammal. In: Abstract Book Conference Insects to Feed the World, The Netherlands 14-17 May, p:156.
  • 32. Jacob, J., 2013. Including insects in organic poultry diets (https://eorganic.org/node/8148; Erişim Tarihi: 21.11.2019).
  • 33. Jozefiak, D., Engberg, R. M., 2015. Insect as poultry feed. 20. European symposium on Poultry Nutrition, 24-27 August, Prague, Czech Republic.
  • 34. Khusro, M., Andrew, N.R., Nicholas, A., 2012. Insects as poultry feed: A scoping study for poultry production systems in Australia. World’s Poultry Science Journal 68(3):435-446.
  • 35. Makkar, H.P.S., Tran, G., Heuzé, V., Ankers, P., 2014. State of the art on use of insects as animal feed. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 197:1-33.
  • 36. Miura, T., Ido, A., Ohta, T., Iwai, T., Kusano, K., Kobayashi, S., Kishida, T., Miura, C., 2014. The benefits of using insects as fish and animal feed. In: Abstract Book Conference Insects to Feed the World, The Netherlands, 14-17 May, p.70.
  • 37. Nakagaki, B.J., Sunde, M.L., DeFoliart, G.R., 1987. Protein quality of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, when fed to broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 66:1367-1371.
  • 38. Newton, G.L., Sheppard, D.C., Watson, D.W., Burtle, G.J., Dove, C.R., Tomberlin, J.K., Thelen, E.E., 2005. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, as a manure management/resource recovery tool. State of the Science. Animal Manure and Waste Management, January 5-7, San Antonio, TX.
  • 39. Pretorius, Q., 2011. The evaluation of larvae of Musca domestica (common house fly) as protein source for broiler production. Stellenbosch University, MSc Thesis, 95p., Stellenboch, South Africa.
  • 40. Smith, R., Pryor, R., 2014. Enabling the exploitation of insects as a sustainable source of protein for animal feed and human nutrition. Protein sect grant agreement number: 312084. Work Package 5: Pro-Insect Platform in Europe-Deliverable 5.1.
  • 41. The Smithsonian Institution, 2019. Bug info numbers of insects (species and individuals). (https://www.si.edu/spotlight/buginfo/bugnos. Erişim Tarihi: 20.11.2019).
  • 42. Stamer, A. 2015. Insect proteins-a new source for animal feed. EMBO Reports 16(6):676-680.
  • 43. Ramos-Elorduy, J., E.A. González, A.R. Hernández, J.M. Pino, 2002. Use of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to recycle organic wastes and as feed for broiler chickens. Journal of Economic Entomology, 95:214-220.
  • 44. Téguia, A., Mpoam, M., Okourou, Mb J.A., 2002. The production performance of broiler birds as affected by the replacement of fish meal by maggot meal in the starter and finisher diets. Tropiculture, 20:187-192.
  • 45. Udomsil, N., Imsoonthornruksa, S., Gosalawit, C., Cairns, M.K., 2019. Nutritional Values and Functional Properties of House Cricket (Acheta domesticus) and Field Cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus). Food Science and Technology Research 25(4):597-605.
  • 46. Van Broekhoven, S., Oonincx, D.G.A.B., Van Huıs, A., Van Loon J.J.A., 2015. Journal of Insect Physiology 73:1-10 47. Veldkamp, T., Bosch, G., 2015. Insects: a protein-rich feed ingredient in pig and poultry diets. Animal Frontier 5:45-50.
  • 48. Veldkamp, T., Duinkerken, G.V., Huis, A.V., Lakemond, C.M.M., Ottevanger, E., Bosh, G., van Boekel, M.A.J.S., 2012. Insects as a sustainable feed ingredient in pig and poultry diets-a feasibility study. Wageningen UR Livestock Research Report, 638.
  • 49. Wang, D., Zhai, S.W., Chuan Xi Zhang, C.X., Bai, Y.Y., An, S.H., Nan, Y., 2005. Evaluation on nutritional value of field crickets as a poultry feedstuff. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, Z18(5):667-670.
  • 50. Zielińska, E., Baraniak, B., Karaś, M., 2017. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrolysates and peptide fractions obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of selected heat-treated edible insects. Forum Nutr. 9(9):970.
  • 51. Zielińska, E., Karaś, M., Jakubczyk, A., Zieliński, D., Baraniak, B., 2018. Edible insects as source of proteins. Bioactive Molecules in Food, pp:1-53.

TÜBİTAK ULAKBİM Ulusal Akademik Ağ ve Bilgi Merkezi Cahit Arf Bilgi Merkezi © 2019 Tüm Hakları Saklıdır.