Elifcan CESUR
(Kırklareli Üniversitesi, Kırklareli , Türkiye)
Kevser TOZDUMAN YARALI
(Kırklareli Üniversitesi, Kırklareli , Türkiye)
Yıl: 2020Cilt: 11Sayı: 39ISSN: 2146-1961Sayfa Aralığı: 136 - 165İngilizce

73 0
A QUALITATIVE VIEW TO CHILDREN’S PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS
Problem solving is one of the important skills, which enables individuals to adapt to life and is associated with skills like theory of mind, empathy and self-regulation, in their life. Problem solving is an improvable skill and should be supported as from early childhood years. The purpose of this study is to determine how children generate solutions to problems and how they feel in such cases. As long as children are good problem solvers, they will find effective solutions to all kinds of problems. In the study, the qualitative model and the case design were used. The data of study were obtained from the children attending a kindergarten in the city center of Kırklareli in the school year of 2016-2017. Eleven children who were selected on a volunteer basis were included in the study where content analysis was carried out. Among the children who participated in the study, six were girls and five were boys. During the application, a puppet and five problem statuses were used. The data collected as a result of one-to-one applications with the children were examined with content analysis method. As a result of the study, it was observed that the children were able to generate effective solutions including the use of empathy and self-regulation skills to the problem statuses; however, they had difficulty in naming their emotions in relation to problem statuses. The results of the study suggest that primarily parents and educators should emphasize emotions more and encourage children to think about their emotions. Additionally, qualitative studies with larger sample groups concerning theory of mind, problem solving, empathy and self-regulation skills can help to understand the development process of these skills better.
DergiAraştırma MakalesiErişime Açık
  • Astington, J. W.,& Baird, J. A. (Eds.). (2005). Why language matters for theory of mind. Oxford University Press.
  • Astington, J.W. & Gopnik, A. (1991). Theoretical explanations of children’s understanding of the mind. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 7–31.
  • Baran, G. & Erdoğan, S. (2007). A research on perspective taking skills and the social behaviour of six-year-old girls and boys. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 4(2): 236-239.
  • Bauer, I. M. & Baumeister, R. F. (2011). Self-regulatory strenght. In K. D. Vohs, R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation: Research, Theory, and Applications. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Bierman, K. L., Nix, R. L., Greenberg, M. T., Blair, C. & Domitrovich, C. E. (2008). Executive functions and school readiness intervention: Impact, moderation, and mediation in the Head Start REDI program. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 821–843.
  • Bondurant, L. M. (2010). The roots of academic underachievement: Prediction from early difficulties with selfregulation. (PhD thesis, The University of Texas), Proquest Information and Learning Company. (UMI 3421467).
  • Bukowski, W. M. (1990). Age differences in children’s memory of information about guests and hosts to peer group entry. Child Development, 62: 1079-1090.
  • Carlson, S. M. & Moses, L.J. (2001). Individual differences in inhibitory control and children's theory of mind. Child Development, 72: 1032-1053.
  • Cole, P. M., Zahn-Waxler, C., Fox, N. A., Usher, B. A. & Welsh, J. D. (1996). Individual differences in emotion regulation and behavior problems in preschool children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(4), 518- 529.
  • D’zurilla, T.J., Nezu, A.M. & Maydeu-Olivares, A. (2004). Social Problem Solving: Theory and Assessment. In E. C. Chang, T. J. D’Zurilla, L. J. Sanna (Eds.), Social problem solving: Theory, research, and training. Retrieved from http://www.ub.edu/gdne/documents/sps chapter_in_APA_book.pdf
  • Dereli-İman, E. (2013). Cocuklar icin sosyal problem çözme olcegi’nin 6 yaş grubu icin Turkiye uyarlamasi ve okul öncesi davranis problemleri ile sosyal problem cozme becerileri arasindaki iliskiler [Adaptation of social problem solving for children questionnaire in 6 age groups and its relationship with preschool behavior problems]. Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 13(1): 479-498.
  • Downs, A. & Strand, P. (2008). Effectiveness of emotion recognition training for young children with developmental delays. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 5(1): 75-89.
  • Eskin, M. (2009). Sorun cozme terapisi [Problem solving therapy]. Ankara: HYB Basim Yayin.
  • Fabes, R. A. & Eisenberg, N. (1992). Young children’s coping with interpersonal anger. Child Development, 63, 116-128.
  • Fabes, R. A., Eisenberg, N., Jones, S., Smith, M., Guthrie, I., Poulin, R., ... & Friedman, J. (1999). Regulation, emotionality, and preschoolers' socially competent peer interactions. Child Development, 70(2), 432- 442.
  • Garner, P W. & Waajid, B. (2012). Emotion knowledge and self-regulation as predictors of preschoolers’ cognitive ability, classroom behavior, and social competence. Journal of Psycheducational Assessment, 30(4): 330-343.
  • Greenspan, S. I. & Salmon, J. (2013). Meydan okuyan cocuk: Bes tip “guç” cocugu anlama, yetistirme ve onlardan hoslanma [The challenging child: Understanding, raising, and enjoying the five" difficult" types of children]. (Cev. I. Ersevim). İstanbul: Ozgur Yayinlari.
  • Greenspan, S. I., Wieder, S. & Simons, R. (2016). Ozel gereksinimli cocuk: Zihinsel ve duygusal gelisim [The child with special needs: Encouraging intellectual and emotional growth]. Cev., I. Ersevim. İstanbul: Ozgur Yayinlari.
  • Heppner, P.P. & Krauskopf, C.J. (1987). An information-processing approach to personal problem solving. Counseling Psychologist, 15: 371-447.
  • Hill, A. L., Degnan, K. A., Calkins, S. D. & Keane, S. P. (2006). Profiles of externalizing behavior problems for boys and girls across preschool: The roles of emotion regulation and inattention. Developmental Psychology, 42(5), 913-928.
  • Kochanska, G., Coy, K. C. & Murray, K. T. (2001). The development of self-regulation in the first four years of life. Child Development, 72: 1091-1111.
  • Kocak, R. (2002). Aleksitimi: Kuramsal cerceve tedavi yaklasimlari ve ilgili arastirmalar [Alexithymia: Theoretical framework treatment approaches and related researches]. Ankara Universitesi Egitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 35(1-2): 183-212.
  • Koole, S. L., Van Dillen, L. F. & Sheppes, G. (2011). The self-regulation of emotion. In K. D. Vohs, R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation: Research, Theory, and Applications. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Koksal Akyol, A. & Didin, E. (2016). Ahlak gelisimi [Moral development]. Cocuk Gelisimi icinde [In Child Development], N. Aral (Ed.). Anadolu Universitesi Yayinlari.
  • Ljungberg, T., Horowitz, L., Jansson, L., Westlund, K. & Clarke, C. (2005). Communicative factors, conflict progression, and use of reconciliatory strategies in pre‐school boys‐a series of random events or a sequential process?. Aggressive Behavior, 31(4): 303-323.
  • Marvin, R.S., Greenberg, M.T. & Mossler, D.G. (1976). The early development of conceptual perspective taking: Distinguishing among multiple perspectives. Child Development, 47: 511-514.
  • McClelland, M. M., & Tominey, S. L. (2011). Introduction to the special issue on self-regulation in early childhood. Early Education & Development, 22(3), 355-359.
  • Merriam, S. B. (2015). Nitel arastirma [Qualitative research] (Cev. Ed. S. Turan). Ankara: Nobel.
  • Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. (2015). Nitel veri analizi [Qualitative data analysis]. Cev. Ed,. S. Akbaba Altun, A. Ersoy. Ankara: Pegem.
  • Montroy, J. J., Bowles, R. P., Skibbe, L. E. & Foster, T. D. (2014). Social skills and problem behaviors as mediators of the relationship between behavioral self-regulation and academic achievement. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(3), 298-309.
  • Musun-Miller, L. (1993). Social acceptance and social problem solving in preschool children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 14, 59-70.
  • Nota, L., Soresi, S. & Zimmerman, B. J. (2004). Self-regulation and academic achievement and resilience: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Educational Research, 41(3), 198-215.
  • Onishi, K. H. & Baillergeon, R. (2005). Do 15-month-old infants understand false belief?. Science, 308: 255-258.
  • Raffaelli, M., Crockett, L. J. & Shen, Y. L. (2005). Developmental stability and change in self-regulation from childhood to adolescence. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 166(1), 54-76.
  • Raver, C. C., Li-Grining, C., Bub , K., Jones, S. M., Zhai, F. & Pressler, E. (2011). CSRP’s impact on low-income preschoolers’ preacademic skills: self-regulation as a mediating mechanism. Child Development, 82(1), 362-378.
  • Riggs, N.R., Jahromi, L.B., Razza, R.P., Dillworth-Bart, J.E. & Mueller, U. (2006). Executive function and the promotion of social-emotional competence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27: 300- 309.
  • Senemoglu, N. (2007). Gelisim, ögrenme ve ögretim: Kuramdan uygulamaya [Development, learning and teaching: From theory to practice]. Ankara: Gonul Yayincilik.
  • Smith-Donald, R., Raver, C.C., Hayes, T. & Richardson, B. (2007). Preliminary construct and concurrent validity of the Preschool Self-regulation Assessment (PSRA) for field-based research. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22, 173-187.
  • Sodian, B. (2011). Theory of mind in infancy. Child Development Perspectives, 5: 39-43.
  • Southam-Gerow, M.A. (2014). Cocuklarda ve ergenlerde duygusal düzenleme [Emotional regulation in children and adolescents]. Cev. Ed., M. Sahin. Cev., M. Artiran.). Ankara: Nobel.
  • Taylor, G. J. (2001). Recent developments in alexithymia theory and research. Can J Psychiatry, 45:134-142.
  • Terzi, S. (2003). Altıncı sinif ögrencilerinin kisiler arası problem cözme beceri algilari [Interpersonal problem solving skills perceptions of sixth grade students]. Turk Egitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 1(2).
  • Tulviste, T. & Koor, M. (2005). “Hands off the car, it’s mine!” and “The teacher will be angry if we don’t play nicely”: Gender-related preferences in the use of moral rules and social conventions in preschoolers’ dyadic play. Sex Roles, 53(1): 57-66.
  • Walker, S., Irving, K. & Berthelsen, D. (2002). Gender influences on preschool children’s social problem-solving strategies. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 163(2): 197–209.
  • Wellman, H. (1990). The child’s theory of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  • Wellman, H. & Lagattuta, K.H. (2000). Developing understandings of mind. In S. Baron-Cohen, H. TagerFlusberg, D.J. Cohen (Eds.), Understanding other minds: Perspectives from developmental cognitive neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Westlund, K., Horowitz, L., Jansson, L. & Ljungberg, T. (2008). Age effects and gender differences on postconflict reconciliation in preschool children. Behaviour, 145(11): 1525-1556.
  • Yildirim, A. & Simsek, H. (2016). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel arastirma yontemleri [Qualitative research methods in the social sciences]. Ankara: Seckin.
  • Yilmaz, E. & Tepeli, K. (2013). 60-72 Aylik cocuklarin sosyal problem cözme becerilerinin duyguları anlama becerileri acisindan incelenmesi [Examinatıon of social problem solving skills of 60-72 months old children in terms of theıir emotion understanding skilla]. Turkiye Sosyal Arastirmalar Dergisi, 172(172): 117-130.
  • Zelazo, P. D., Carlson, S. M. & Kesek, A. (2008). The development of executive function in childhood. In C. Nelson & M. Luciana (Ed.), Handbook of developmental cognitive neuroscience (2nd ed., pp. 553-574). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R., Pintrich, M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of selfregulation. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

TÜBİTAK ULAKBİM Ulusal Akademik Ağ ve Bilgi Merkezi Cahit Arf Bilgi Merkezi © 2019 Tüm Hakları Saklıdır.