Murat YEŞİLYURT
(Yozgat Bozok Üniversitesi, Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü, Yozgat, Türkiye)
Yıl: 2020Cilt: 7Sayı: 2ISSN: 2149-2123 / 2148-4171Sayfa Aralığı: 135 - 148İngilizce

98 0
An Experimental Study On The Performance And Exhaust Emission Characteristics Of A CI Engine Powered By Alcohol/Biodiesel/Diesel Fuel Blends Containing Different Types Of Alcohol (Isopropanol-C3, 1-Butanol-C4, And Isopentanol-C5)
Alcohols are significant alternative and renewable fuel candidates for the utilization in the internal combustion engines due to encouraging favorable environmental and economic outputs. Long-chain alcohols have various advantages over short-chain alcohols because of their larger energy content, elevated cetane number (CN) and preferable blending properties, etc. The objective of the present experimental research deal with the exploring and compare the influence of the ternary fuel mixtures of petroleum-based diesel fuel, cottonseed oil methyl ester (COME) and long-chain alcohols of isopropanol (Pr), 1-butanol (Bt), and isopentanol (Pt) on the performance and emission characteristics of a single-cylinder, four-stroke, naturally-aspirated, direct-injection compression-ignition (CI) engine. As the prepared tested fuel samples, four different blends were as follows on a volume basis: B20 (20% COME + %80 diesel fuel), B20Pr20 (20% COME + %20 isopropanol + %80 diesel fuel), B20Bt20 (20% COME + %20 1-butanol + %80 diesel fuel), and B20Pt20 (20% COME + %20 isopentanol + %80 diesel fuel). The engine trials were carried out at various loads (0-1250 W) and under a constant speed (3000 rpm) to observe the aforementioned behaviors. Based on the experimental outcomes, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) values of B20Pr20 exhibited higher than those of other ternary blends at all loads. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) values for B20Pt20 were observed as larger than those of ternary blends. B20Pt20 had higher exhaust gas temperature (EGT) values than those of B20Bt20 and B20Pr20. The infusion of long-chain alcohols to COME/diesel blend caused to reduce NOX emissions meanwhile isopropanol, 1-butanol, and isopentanol were the most to least influential alcohol types, respectively. Besides, with the addition of alcohol, a substantial decrement was noticed in smoke opacity at entire loads owing to the excess amount of oxygen content and lesser ratio of C/H of the alcohols. However, CO and HC emissions rose by infusion of long-chain alcohols to the blends. Finally, it can be concluded that higher alcohols could be a possible fuel additive for the fractional replacement for petroleum-based diesel fuel and biodiesel in the blends for CI engine practices. INTRODUCTION Keyword
DergiAraştırma MakalesiErişime Açık
  • 1. Kalam MA, Masjuki HH, Jayed MH, Liaquat AM. Emission and performance characteristics of an indirect ignition diesel engine fuelled with waste cooking oil. Energy 36(1) (2011) 397–402.
  • 2. fe Ş, Ceviz MA, Temur H. Comparative engine characteristics of biodiesels from hazelnut, corn, soybean, canola and sunflower oils on DI diesel engine. Renewable Energy 119 (2018) 142–151.
  • 3. Ashok B, Ashok SD, Kumar CR. LPG diesel dual fuel engine–A critical review. Alexandria Engineering Journal 54(2) (2015) 105– 126.
  • 4. Ashok B, Nanthagopal K, Saravanan B, Azad K, Patel D, Sudarshan B, Ramasamy RA. Study on isobutanol and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel as a partial replacement in CI engine applications. Fuel 235 (2019) 984–994.
  • 5. Keskin A, Sağıroğlu S. Exhaust emissions originated diesel engines and their control methods. Engineer and Machinery 51(606) (2010) 2–9. (in Turkish)
  • 6. Yilmaz N. Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel–ethanol and biodiesel–methanol blends at elevated air temperatures. Fuel 94 (2012) 440–443.
  • 7. Aytav E, Kocar G. Biodiesel from the perspective of Turkey: Past, present and future. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 25 (2013) 335–350.
  • 8. Atmanli A. Comparative analyses of diesel–waste oil biodiesel and propanol, n-butanol or 1-pentanol blends in a diesel engine. Fuel 1 76 (201 6) 209–215.
  • 9. Jin C, Pang X, Zhang X, Wu S, Ma M, Xiang Y, Ma J, Ji J, Wang G, Liu H. Effects of C3–C5 alcohols on solubility of alcohols/diesel blends. Fuel 236 (2019) 65–74.
  • 10. Rajak U, Verma TN. Effect of emission from ethylic biodiesel of edible and non-edible vegetable oil, animal fats, waste oil and alcohol in CI engine. Energy Conversion and Management 166 (2018) 704–718.
  • 11. Singh SP, Singh D. Biodiesel production through the use of different sources and characterization of oils and their esters as the substitute of diesel: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 200–216.
  • 12. Chauhan BS, Singh RK, Cho HM, Lim HC. Practice of diesel fuel blends using alternative fuels: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 59 (2016) 1358–1368.
  • 13. Moka S, Pande M, Rani M, Gakhar R, Sharma M, Rani J, Bhaskarwar AN. Alternative fuels: an overview of current trends and scope for future. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 32 (2014) 697–712.
  • 14. Atmanli A. Effects of a cetane improver on fuel properties and engine characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with the blends of diesel, hazelnut oil and higher carbon alcohol. Fuel 172 (2016) 209–21 7.
  • 15. Abdullah AZ, Salamatinia B, Mootabadi H, Bhatia S. Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil. Energy Policy 37(12) (2009) 5440–5448.
  • 16. Agarwal AK. Biofuels (alcohols and biodiesel) applications as fuels for internal combustion engines. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 33(3) (2007) 233–271.
  • 17. Atabani AE, Silitonga AS, Badruddin IA, Mahlia TMI, Masjuki HH, Mekhilef S. A comprehensive review on biodiesel as an alternative energy resource and its characteristics. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16(4) (2012) 2070–2093.
  • 18. Lin L, Cunshan Z, Vittayapadung S, Xiangqian S, Mingdong D. Opportunities and challenges for biodiesel fuel. Applied Energy 88(4) (2011) 1020–1031.
  • 19. Sharma YC, Singh B, Upadhyay SN. Advancements in development and characterization of biodiesel: A review. Fuel 87(12) (2008) 2355–2373.
  • 20. Atzemi M, Lois E, Kosyfologou I. Effects of biodiesel and hydrotreated vegetable oil on the performance and exhaust emissions of a stationary diesel engine. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry 12(1) (2019) 44–54.
  • 21. Ooi XY, Gao W, Ong HC, Lee HV, Juan JC, Chen WH, Lee KT. Overview on catalytic deoxygenation for biofuel synthesis using metal oxide supported catalysts. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 112 (2019) 834–852.
  • 22. Yesilyurt MK, Yilbasi Z, Aydin M. The performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics of an unmodified diesel engine running on the ternary blends of pentanol/safflower oil biodiesel/diesel fuel. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (2020) 1-40.
  • 23. Atmanli A, Ileri E, Yuksel B, Yilmaz N. Extensive analyses of diesel– vegetable oil–n-butanol ternary blends in a diesel engine. Applied Energy 145 (2015) 155–162.
  • 24. Gülüm M, Bilgin A. A comprehensive study on measurement and prediction of viscosity of biodiesel-diesel-alcohol ternary blends. Energy 148 (2018) 341–361.
  • 25. Ibrahim A. Performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled by butanol–biodiesel–diesel blends. Applied Thermal Engineering 103 (2016) 651–659.
  • 26. Yilmaz N, Atmanli A, Vigil FM. Quaternary blends of diesel, biodiesel, higher alcohols and vegetable oil in a compression ignition engine. Fuel 212 (2018) 462–469.
  • 27. Hulwan DB, Joshi SV. Performance, emission and combustion characteristic of a multicylinder DI diesel engine running on diesel– ethanol–biodiesel blends of high ethanol content. Applied Energy 88(12) (2011) 5042–5055.
  • 28. Çelebi Y, Aydın H. An overview on the light alcohol fuels in diesel engines. Fuel 236 (2019) 890–911.
  • 29. Ning L, Duan Q, Chen Z, Kou H, Liu B, Yang B, Zeng K. A comparative study on the combustion and emissions of a nonroad common rail diesel engine fueled with primary alcohol fuels (methanol, ethanol, and n-butanol)/diesel dual fuel. Fuel 266 (2020) 117034.
  • 30. Jamrozik A, Tutak W, Gnatowska R, Nowak Ł. Comparativeanalysis of the combustion stability of diesel-methanol and diesel-ethanol in a dual fuel engine. Energies 12(6) (2019) 971.
  • 31. Dabas N, Dubey V, Chhabra M, Dwivedi G. Performance analysis of an IC engine using methanol, ethanol, and its blend with gasoline and diesel as a fuel. In Advances in Fluid and Thermal Engineering (2019) 223–232.
  • 32. Kwanchareon P, Luengnaruemitchai A, Jai-In S. Solubility of a diesel–biodiesel–ethanol blend, its fuel properties, and its emission characteristics from diesel engine. Fuel 86(7-8) (2007) 1053–1061.
  • 33. Shahir SA, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Imran A, Fattah IR, Sanjid A. Feasibility of diesel–biodiesel–ethanol/bioethanol blend as existing CI engine fuel: An assessment of properties, material compatibility, safety and combustion. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 32 (2014) 379–395.
  • 34. Lei J, Shen L, Bi Y, Chen H. A novel emulsifier for ethanol–diesel blends and its effect on performance and emissions of diesel engine. Fuel 93 (2012) 305–311.
  • 35. Al-Hassan M, Mujafet H, Al-Shannag M. An Experimental study on the solubility of a diesel-ethanol blend and on the performance of a diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends. Jordan Journal of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 6(2) (2012) 147–153.
  • 36. Kumar BR, Saravanan S. Use of higher alcohol biofuels in diesel engines: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 84–115.
  • 37. Kumar BR, Saravanan S, Rana D, Nagendran A. A comparative analysis on combustion and emissions of some next generation higher-alcohol/diesel blends in a direct-injection diesel engine. Energy Conversion and Management 119 (2016) 246–256.
  • 38. Yogesh P, Sakthi SD, Aravinth C, Sathiyakeerthy K, Susenther M. Performance test on diesel-biodiesel–propanol blended fuels in CI engine. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology 3(2) (2018) 294–299.
  • 39. Şen M. The effect of the injection pressure on single cylinder diesel engine fueled with propanol–diesel blend. Fuel 254 (2019) 115617.
  • 40. Muthaiyan P, Gomathinayagam S. Combustion characteristics of a diesel engine using propanol diesel fuel blends. Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India): Series C 97(3) (2016) 323–329.
  • 41. Kumar BR, Muthukkumar T, Krishnamoorthy V, Saravanan S. A comparative evaluation and optimization of performance and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with n-propanol/diesel, n-butanol/diesel and n-pentanol/diesel blends using response surface methodology. RSC Advances 6(66) (2016) 61869–61890.
  • 42. Kumar BR, Saravanan S. Effects of iso-butanol/diesel and n-pentanol/diesel blends on performance and emissions of a DI diesel engine under premixed LTC (low temperature combustion) mode. Fuel 170 (2016) 49–59.
  • 43. Zhang ZH, Chua SM, Balasubramanian R. Comparative evaluation of the effect of butanol–diesel and pentanol–diesel blends on carbonaceous particulate composition and particle number emissions from a diesel engine. Fuel 176 (2016) 40–47.
  • 44. Saravanan S, Kumar BR, Varadharajan A, Rana D, Sethuramasamyraja B. Optimization of DI diesel engine parameters fueled with iso-butanol/diesel blends–response surface methodology approach. Fuel 203 (2017) 658–670.
  • 45. Ganesh D, Ayyappan PR, Murugan R. Experimental investigation of iso-butanol/diesel reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion in a non-road diesel engine. Applied Energy 242 (2019) 1307–1319.
  • 46. Wei M, Li S, Xiao H, Guo G. Combustion performance and pollutant emissions analysis using diesel/gasoline/iso-butanol blends in a diesel engine. Energy Conversion and Management 149 (2017) 381–391.
  • 47. Zhang ZH, Balasubramanian R. Physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of particulate matter emitted from a non-road diesel engine: Comparative evaluation of biodiesel-diesel and butanoldiesel blends. Journal of Hazardous Materials 264 (2014) 395–402.
  • 48. Yilmaz N, Vigil FM, Benalil K, Davis SM, Calva A. Effect of biodiesel–butanol fuel blends on emissions and performance characteristics of a diesel engine. Fuel 135 (2014) 46–50.
  • 49. Işık MZ, Bayındır H, Iscan B, Aydın H. The effect of n-butanol additive on low load combustion, performance and emissionsof biodiesel-diesel blend in a heavy duty diesel power generator.Journal of the Energy Institute 90(2) (2017) 174–184.
  • 50. Campos-Fernández J, Arnal JM, Gómez J, Dorado MP. A comparison of performance of higher alcohols/diesel fuel blends in a diesel engine. Applied Energy 95 (2012) 267–275
  • 51. Li L, Wang J, Wang Z, Xiao J. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with diesel/biodiesel/ pentanol fuel blends. Fuel 156 (2015) 211–218.
  • 52. Li L, Wang J, Wang Z, Liu H. Combustion and emissions of compression ignition in a direct injection diesel engine fueled with pentanol. Energy 80 (2015) 575–581.
  • 53. Yang K, Wei L, Cheung CS, Tang C, Huang Z. The effect of pentanol addition on the particulate emission characteristics of a biodiesel operated diesel engine. Fuel 209 (2017) 132–140.
  • 54. Santhosh K, Kumar GN. Effect of 1-pentanol addition and EGR on the combustion, performance and emission characteristic of a CRDI diesel engine. Renewable Energy 145 (2020) 925–936.
  • 55. Sridhar R, Jeevahan J, Chandrasekaran M. Effect of the addition of 1-pentanol on engine performance and emission characteristics of diesel and biodiesel fuelled single cylinder diesel engine. International Journal of Ambient Energy 41(1) (2020) 58–63.
  • 56. Ghadikolaei MA, Cheung CS, Yung KF. Study of combustion, performance and emissions of diesel engine fueled with diesel/ biodiesel/alcohol blends having the same oxygen concentration. Energy 157 (2018) 258–269.
  • 57. Yilmaz N, Ileri E, Atmanli A. Performance of biodiesel/higher alcohols blends in a diesel engine. International Journal of Energy Research 40(8) (2016) 1134–1143.
  • 58. Atmanli A, Yilmaz N. An experimental assessment on semi-low temperature combustion using waste oil biodiesel/C3-C5 alcohol blends in a diesel engine. Fuel 260 (2020) 116357.
  • 59. Yesilyurt MK, Aydin M. Experimental investigation on the performance, combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a compression-ignition engine fueled with cottonseed oil biodiesel/diethyl ether/diesel fuel blends. Energy Conversion and Management 205 (2020) 112355.
  • 60. Verma P, Dwivedi G, Behura AK, Patel DK, Verma TN, Pugazhendhi A. Experimental investigation of diesel engine fuelled with different alkyl esters of Karanja oil. Fuel 275 (2020) 117920.
  • 61. Shrivastava P, Salam S, Verma TN, Samuel OD. Experimental and empirical analysis of an IC engine operating with ternary blends of diesel, karanja and roselle biodiesel. Fuel 262 (2020) 116608.
  • 62. Shrivastava P, Verma TN, Pugazhendhi A. An experimental evaluation of engine performance and emisssion characteristics of CI engine operated with Roselle and Karanja biodiesel. Fuel 254 (2019) 115652.
  • 63. Singh TS, Verma TN. Taguchi design approach for extraction of methyl ester from waste cooking oil using synthesized CaO as heterogeneous catalyst: Response surface methodology optimization. Energy Conversion and Management 182 (2019) 383–397.
  • 64. Rajak U, Nashine P, Singh TS, Verma TN. Numerical investigation of performance, combustion and emission characteristics of various biofuels. Energy Conversion and Management 156 (2018) 235–252.
  • 65. Rajak U, Nashine P, Verma TN, Pugazhendhi A. Alternating the environmental benefits of Aegle-diesel blends used in compression ignition. Fuel 256 (2019) 115835.
  • 66. Rakopoulos DC, Rakopoulos CD, Giakoumis EG, Dimaratos AM, Kyritsis DC. Effects of butanol–diesel fuel blends on the performance and emissions of a high-speed DI diesel engine. Energy Conversion and Management 51(10) (2010) 1989–1997.
  • 67. Ramesh A, Ashok B, Nanthagopal K, Pathy MR, Tambare A, Mali P, Phuke P, Patil S, Subbarao R. Influence of hexanol as additive with Calophyllum Inophyllum biodiesel for CI engine applications. Fuel 249 (2019) 472–485.
  • 68. Prakash T, Geo VE, Martin LJ, Nagalingam B. Effect of ternary blends of bio-ethanol, diesel and castor oil on performance, emission and combustion in a CI engine. Renewable Energy 122 (2018) 301–309.
  • 69. Ors I, Kahraman A, Ciniviz M. Performance, emission and combustion analysis of a compression ignition engine using biofuel blends. Thermal Science 21(1 Part B) (2017) 511–522.
  • 70. Silitonga AS, Masjuki HH, Ong HC, Sebayang AH, Dharma S, Kusumo F, Siswantoro J, Milano J, Daud K, Mahlia TMI, Chen WH, Sugiyanto B. Evaluation of the engine performance and exhaust emissions of biodiesel-bioethanol-diesel blends using kernel-based extreme learning machine. Energy 159 (2018) 1075–1087.
  • 71. Emiroğlu AO, Şen M. Combustion, performance and emission characteristics of various alcohol blends in a single cylinder diesel engine. Fuel 212 (2018) 34–40.
  • 72. Qi DH, Chen H, Geng LM, Bian YZ. Experimental studies on the combustion characteristics and performance of a direct injection engine fueled with biodiesel/diesel blends. Energy Conversion and Management 51(12) (2010) 2985–2992.
  • 73. Ashok B, Nanthagopal K, Darla S, Chyuan OH, Ramesh A, Jacob A, Sahil G, Thiyagarajan S, Geo VE. Comparative assessment of hexanol and decanol as oxygenated additives with calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel. Energy 173 (2019) 494–510.
  • 74. Leite D, Santos RF, Bassegio D, de Souza SNM, Secco D, Gurgacz F, da Silva TRB. Emissions and performance of a diesel engine affected by soybean, linseed, and crambe biodiesel. Industrial Crops and Products 130 (2019) 267–272.
  • 75. Babu D, Anand R. Effect of biodiesel-diesel-n-pentanol and biodiesel-diesel-n-hexanol blends on diesel engine emission and combustion characteristics. Energy 133 (2017) 761–776.
  • 76. Devarajan Y, Nagappan BK, Munuswamy DB. Performance and emissions analysis on diesel engine fuelled with cashew nut shell biodiesel and pentanol blends. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering 34(4) (2017) 1021–1026.
  • 77. Venu H, Subramani L, Raju VD. Emission reduction in a DI diesel engine using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) of palm biodiesel blended with TiO2 nano additives. Renewable Energy 140 (2019) 245–263.
  • 78. Yilmaz N. Comparative analysis of biodiesel–ethanol–diesel and biodiesel–methanol–diesel blends in a diesel engine. Energy 40(1) (2012) 210–213.
  • 79. Candan F, Ciniviz M, Ors I. Effect of cetane improver addition into diesel fuel: Methanol mixtures on performance and emissions at different injection pressures. Thermal Science 21(1 Part B) (2017) 555–566.
  • 80. An H, Yang WM, Chou SK, Chua KJ. Combustion and emissions characteristics of diesel engine fueled by biodiesel at partial load conditions. Applied Energy 99 (2012) 363–371.
  • 81. Yesilyurt MK, Eryilmaz T, Arslan M. A comparative analysis of the engine performance, exhaust emissions and combustion behaviors of a compression ignition engine fuelled with biodiesel/diesel/1- butanol (C4 alcohol) and biodiesel/diesel/n-pentanol (C5 alcohol) fuel blends. Energy 165 (2018) 1332–1351.
  • 82. Žaglinskis J, Lukács K, Bereczky Á. Comparison of properties ofa compression ignition engine operating on diesel–biodiesel blend with methanol additive. Fuel 170 (2016) 245–253.
  • 83. Rakopoulos CD, Antonopoulos KA, Rakopoulos DC. Experimental heat release analysis and emissions of a HSDI diesel engine fueled with ethanol–diesel fuel blends. Energy 32(10) (2007) 1791–1808.
  • 84. Ashok B, Jeevanantham AK, Nanthagopal K, Saravanan B, Kumar MS, Johny A, Mohan A, Kaisan MU, Abubakar S. An experimental analysis on the effect of n-pentanol-Calophyllum Inophyllum Biodiesel binary blends in CI engine characteristcis. Energy 173 (2019) 290–305.
  • 85. Joy N, Devarajan Y, Nagappan B, Anderson A. Exhaust emission study on neat biodiesel and alcohol blends fueled diesel engine. Energy Sources Part A 40(1) (2018) 115–119.
  • 86. Balan KN, Yashvanth U, Booma Devi P, Arvind T, Nelson H, Devarajan Y. Investigation on emission characteristics of alcohol biodiesel blended diesel engine. Energy Sources Part A 41(15) (2019) 1879–1889.
  • 87. Nabi MN, Zare A, Hossain FM, Bodisco TA, Ristovski ZD, Brown RJ. A parametric study on engine performance and emissions with neat diesel and diesel-butanol blends in the 13-Mode European Stationary Cycle. Energy Conversion and Management 148 (2017) 251–259.
  • 88. Uyumaz A. Combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with mustard oil biodiesel fuel blends at different engine loads. Fuel 212 (2018) 256–267.
  • 89. Imdadul HK, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Zulkifli NWM, Alabdulkarem A, Rashed MM, Teoh YH, How HG. Higher alcohol-biodiesel-diesel blends: An approach for improving the performance, emission, and combustion of a light-duty diesel engine. Energy Conversion and Management 111 (2016) 174–185.
  • 90. Imdadul HK, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Zulkifli NWM, Alabdulkarem A, Kamruzzaman M, Rashed MM. A comparative study of C4 and C5 alcohol treated diesel-biodiesel blends in terms of diesel engine performance and exhaust emission. Fuel 179 (2016) 281–288.
  • 91. Ramakrishnan P, Kasimani R, Peer MS, Rajamohan S. Assessment of n-pentanol/Calophyllum inophyllum/diesel blends on the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a constant-speed variable compression ratio direct injection diesel engine. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25(14) (2018) 13731–13744.
  • 92. Palash SM, Kalam MA, Masjuki HH, Masum BM, Fattah IR, Mofijur M. Impacts of biodiesel combustion on NOx emissions and their reduction approaches. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 23 (2013) 473–490.
  • 93. Uyaroğlu A, Uyumaz A, Çelikten İ. Comparison of the combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of inedible Crambe abyssinica biodiesel and edible Hazelnut, Corn, soybean, sunflower, and Canola biodiesels. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy 37(4) (2018) 1438–1447.
  • 94. Zhu L, Cheung CS, Zhang WG, Huang Z. Combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with ethanol–biodiesel blends. Fuel 90(5) (2011) 1743–1750.
  • 95. Siwale L, Kristóf L, Adam T, Bereczky A, Mbarawa M, Penninger A, Kolesnikov A. Combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol/diesel fuel blend in a turbo-charged compression ignition engine. Fuel 107 (2013) 409–418.
  • 96. Yilmaz N, Atmanli A. Experimental evaluation of a diesel engine running on the blends of diesel and pentanol as a next generation higher alcohol. Fuel 210 (2017) 75–82.
  • 97. Anbarasu A, Saravanan M, Loganathan M. The effect of ethanol addition in a biodiesel operated DI diesel engine on combustion, performance, and emission characteristics. International Journal of Green Energy 10(1) (2013) 90–102.
  • 98. Çelik M, Örs İ, Bayindirli C, Demiralp M. Experimental investigation of impact of addition of bioethanol in different biodiesels, on performance, combustion and emission characteristics. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 31(11) (2017) 5581–5592.
  • 99. Dhanasekaran R, Krishnamoorthy V, Rana D, Saravanan S, Nagendran A, Kumar BR. A sustainable and eco-friendly fueling approach for direct-injection diesel engines using restaurant yellow grease and n-pentanol in blends with diesel fuel. Fuel 193 (2017) 419–431.
  • 100. Zheng M, Mulenga MC, Reader GT, Wang M, Ting DS, Tjong J. Biodiesel engine performance and emissions in low temperature combustion. Fuel 87(6) (2008) 714–722.
  • 101. Wei L, Cheung CS, Huang Z. Effect of n-pentanol addition on the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a directinjection diesel engine. Energy 70 (2014) 172–180.
  • 102. Kumar BR, Saravanan S. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on performance and emissions of a constant speed DI diesel engine fueled with pentanol/diesel blends. Fuel 160 (2015) 217–226.
  • 103. Karabektas M, Hosoz M. Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine using isobutanol–diesel fuel blends. Renewable Energy 34(6) (2009) 1554–1559.
  • 104. Tan PQ, Hu ZY, Lou DM, Li ZJ. Exhaust emissions from a lightduty diesel engine with Jatropha biodiesel fuel. Energy 39(1) (2012) 356–362.
  • 105. Tsolakis A, Megaritis A, Wyszynski ML, Theinnoi K. Engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine operating on diesel-RME (rapeseed methyl ester) blends with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation). Energy 32(11) (2007) 2072–2080

TÜBİTAK ULAKBİM Ulusal Akademik Ağ ve Bilgi Merkezi Cahit Arf Bilgi Merkezi © 2019 Tüm Hakları Saklıdır.