Müzeyyen PANDI
(Işık Üniversitesi, Beşeri ve Sosyal Bilimler Bölümü, İstanbul, Türkiye)
Yıl: 2020Cilt: 25Sayı: 1ISSN: 1300-8641 / 2651-3315Sayfa Aralığı: 99 - 120İngilizce

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Media Portrayals of Refugees and their Effects on Social Conflict and Social Cohesion
Media portrayals of refugees can produce prejudice toward refugees as well as understanding and acceptance. In that sense, the media have the potential to be part of the problem or part of the solution in issues of conflict and cohesion between host and refugee communities. In this critical time when the future of Syrian refugees in Turkey is being discussed, this article reviews previous research on the media’s representation of refugees, identifies the dominant representational practices and discusses their effects on the inclusion and exclusion of refugees, which may lead to social cohesion or social conflict, respectively. The main body of the article first identifies the negative effects of refugee representations, namely victimization, depoliticization, dehumanization, marginalization, homogenization and deindividualization, and explains in what ways these representations stigmatize refugees as “other” in society and produce prejudice and xenophobia toward them. The article then turns to the representation strategies used to reduce prejudice and motivate understanding in society. Here, empathizing with refugees and taking a rights-based journalism approach are identified among the media’s inclusion practices toward refugees. Overall, specifically focusing on Syrians in Turkey, the paper aims to initiate a discussion on how the media can play a role in assisting the acceptance of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in a new country by raising awareness about the media’s representational practices.
DergiAraştırma MakalesiErişime Açık
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  • 2 Syrians who fled to Turkey are officially recognized as holders of temporary protection status. In the media and in daily conversations, the terms refugee, asylum seeker, migrant and people under temporary protection are used interchangeably to refer to Syrians in Turkey. In this paper, for ease of use, the generic term “Syrians” will be used for Syrians residing under temporary protection in Turkey.
  • 3 Şebnem Koşer Akçapar & Doğuş Şimşek, “The Politics of Syrian Refugees inTurkey: A Question of Inclusion and Exclusion through Citizenship,” Social Inclusion, Vol. 6, No. 1 (March 2018), pp. 176–187.
  • 4 Resmi Gazete, No. 6458, 11 April 2013.
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  • 11 Saraçoğlu & Bélanger, “Loss and Xenophobia in the City,” p. 365.
  • 12 Ibid.
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  • 18 Erdoğan, Türkiye’deki Suriyeliler.
  • 19 Lynda Mannik, “Public and Private Photographs of Refugees: The Problem of Representation,” Visual Studies, Vol. 27, No. 3 (October 2012), pp. 262–276.
  • 20 Barbara Harrell-Bond, “Can Humanitarian Work with Refugees be Humane?” Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 24 (2002), pp. 51–85.
  • 21 Ali Çağlar and Abdülkadir Onay, “Entegrasyon/Uyum: Kavramsal ve Yapısal Bir Analiz,” in Betül Dilara Şeker, İbrahim Sirkeci & M. Murat Yüceşahin (eds), Göç ve Uyum, London: Transnational Press, 2015, pp. 46–47.
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  • 24 Heather L. Johnson, “Click to Donate: Visual Images, Constructing Victims and Imagining the Female Refugee,” Third World Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 6. (June 2011), pp. 1015–1037; Liisa H. Malkki, “Speechless Emissaries: Refugees, Humanitarianism and Dehistoricization,” Cultural Anthropology, Vol. 11, No. 3 (August 1996), pp. 377–404.
  • 25 İbrahim Efe, “A Corpus-driven Analysis of Representations of Syrian Asylum Seekers in the Turkish Press 2011–2016,” Discourse & Communication, Vol. 13, No. 1 (February 2019), pp. 48–67; Pandır, “Stereotyping, Victimization and Depoliticization,” pp. 409–427; Sunata & Yıldız, “Representation of Syrian Refugees in the Turkish Media,” pp. 129–151; Ülkü Doğanay & Hatice Çoban Keneş, “Yazılı Basında Suriyeli ‘Mülteciler’: Ayrımcı Söylemlerin Rasyonel ve Duygusal Gerekçelerinin İnşası,” Mülkiye Dergisi, Vol. 40, No.1 (2016), pp. 143–184; Filiz Göktuna Yaylacı & Mine Karakuş, “Perceptions and Newspaper Coverage of Syrian Refugees in Turkey,” Migration Letters, Vol. 12, No. 3 (September 2015), pp. 238–250.
  • 26 Harrell-Bond, “Can Humanitarian Work with Refugees be Humane?” p. 57.
  • 27 “Medya 18 Aylık İzleme Raporu. Ulusal ve Yerel Medyada Mülteci ve Göç Haberleri, 01.06.2017 - 30.11.2018,” İGAM, 4 February 2019, https://medya.igamder.org/TR/media/ulusal-ve-yerelmedyada-multeci-ve-goc-haberleri-raporu (Accessed 25 April 2020).
  • 28 Ahmet İçduygu & Elini Diker, “Labor Market Integration of Syrian Refugees in Turkey: From Refugees to Settlers,” The Journal of Migration Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1 (January-June 2017), pp. 12–35.
  • 29 “Medya 18 Aylık İzleme Raporu,” p. 45; Maria Georgiou & Rafal Zaborowski, “Media Coverage of the ‘Refugee Crisis’: A Cross-European Perspective,” Council of Europe, 2017, https://rm.coe. int/media-coverage-of-the-refugee-crisis-2017-web/168071222d (Accessed 26 April 2020).
  • 30 Georgiou & Zaborowski, “Media Coverage of the ‘Refugee Crisis,’” p. 17.
  • 31 “Medya 18 Aylık İzleme Raporu,” pp. 46 & 92.
  • 32 Pandır, “Stereotyping, Victimization and Depoliticization,” pp. 409–427.
  • 33 Doğanay & Keneş, “Yazılı Basında Suriyeli ‘Mülteciler.’”
  • 34 An explanation should be made here about the use of the term “illegal” for humans. The Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants (PICUM) warns that “calling a certain group of people ‘illegal’ denies them their humanity. There is no such thing as an ‘illegal’ person.” PICUM also rejects the use of the term “illegal migrant” because migration is not a crime. The Platform uses the terms “undocumented” or “irregular” migrant, instead. See “Words Matter,” PICUM, https://picum.org/words-matter/ (Accessed 26 April 2020).
  • 35 Mannik, “Public and Private Photographs of Refugees,” pp. 262–276; Gregory McLaughlin, “Refugees, Migrants and the Fall of the Berlin Wall,” in Greg Philo (ed.), Message Received, London: Routledge, 1999, pp. 197–210; Greg Philo & Liza Beattie, “Race, Migration and Media,” in Greg Philo (ed.), Message Received, London: Routledge, 1999, pp. 171–196; Teun A. van Dijk, Racism and the Press, London, Routledge, 1991; Natasha Klocker & Kevin M. Dunn, “Who’s Driving the Asylum Debate? Newspaper and Government Representations of Asylum Seekers,” Media International Australia, Vol. 109, No. 1 (November 2003), pp. 71–93; Minelle Mahtani & Alison Mountz, “Immigration to British Columbia: Media Representation and Public Opinion,” Research on Immigration and Integration in the Metropolis, Working Paper Series No. 02-15, August 2002, http://mbc.metropolis.net/assets/uploads/files/wp/2002/WP02-15. pdf (Accessed 15 August 2019); Frances Henry & Carol Tator, Discourses of Domination: Racial Bias in the Canadian English-Language Press, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002.
  • 36 Doğanay and Keneş, “Yazılı Basında Suriyeli ‘Mülteciler’,” pp. 143–184; Efe, “A Corpus-driven Analysis of Representations,” pp. 48–67; Erdoğan, Türkiye’deki Suriyeliler; “Medya 18 Aylık İzleme Raporu;” Sunata & Yıldız, “Representation of Syrian Refugees in the Turkish Media,” pp. 129–151.
  • 37 Victoria M. Esses, Stelian Medianu & Andrea S. Lawson, “Uncertainty, Threat, and the Role of the Media in Promoting the Dehumanization of Immigrants and Refugees,” Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 69, No. 3 (September 2013), pp. 518–536.
  • 38 Naira Delgado et al, “Priming Effects of Violence on Infrahumanization,” Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Vol. 12, No. 6 (November 2009), pp. 699–714.
  • 39 Erdoğan, Türkiye’deki Suriyeliler.
  • 40 Hynie, “Refugee Integration: Research and Policy.” pp. 265–276.
  • 41 Esses, Medianu & Lawson, “Uncertainty, Threat, and the Role of the Media,” pp. 518–536.
  • 42 Erdoğan, Türkiye’deki Suriyeliler.
  • 43 Andrew Jakubowicz, “The Media and Social Cohesion,” in James Jupp, John Nieuwenhuysen & Emma Dawson, Social Cohesion in Australia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007, pp. 158–169.
  • 44 Jennifer Fredette, “Examining the French Hijab and Burqa Bans through Reflexive Cultural Judgment,” New Political Science, Vol. 37, No. 1 (February 2015), pp. 48–70.
  • 45 “French Full-Body Veil Ban, Violated Women’s Freedom of Religion: UN Human Rights Committee,” UN News, 23 October 2018, https://news.un.org/en/story/2018/10/1023872 (Accessed 26 April 2020).
  • 46 For a discussion on how orientalism appears in the colonial times and today, see Müzeyyen Pandır, Orientalism in the EU Context: A Critical Analysis of EU Narratives on Europe and Turkey, Ankara: Avrupa Birliği Bakanlığı Yayınları, 2014.
  • 47 Samuel P. Huntington, “The Clash of Civilizations?” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 72, No. 3 (Summer 1993), pp. 22–49.
  • 48 Peter Manning, Dog Whistle Politics and Journalism: Reporting Arabic and Muslim People in Sydney Newpapers, Sydney: The Australian Centre for Independent Journalism, 2004.
  • 49 Georgiou & Zaborowski, “Media Coverage of the ‘Refugee Crisis.’”
  • 50 Ibid, p.10.
  • 51 Ibid.
  • 52 “Medya 18 Aylık İzleme Raporu
  • 53 Ibid, p. 23.
  • 54 Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities, London: Verso, 1983.
  • 55 Anne Pedersen et al., “How to Cook Rice: A Review of Ingredients forTeaching Anti‐Prejudice,” Australian Psychologist, Vol. 46, No. 1 (March 2011), pp. 55–63.
  • 56 “Most Shocking Second a Day – Save the Children,” YouTube, 5 March 2014, https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=RBQ-IoHfimQ (Accessed 25 July 2019).
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  • 58 Meltem Bostancı, “Rights-Based Approach to Journalism in Turkey,” Journalism and Mass Communication, Vol. 7, No. 5 (May 2017), pp. 244–248.
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