Didem KARA
(İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Kentsel Tasarım Yüksek Lisans Programı, İstanbul, Türkiye)
Gülden ORUC
(İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Şehir ve Bölge Planlama Bölümü, İstanbul, Türkiye)
Yıl: 2020Cilt: 16Sayı: 31ISSN: 1302-2636 / 1302-2636Sayfa Aralığı: 257 - 277Türkçe

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Birey-Doğa İlişkisinin Yeniden Kurgulanması Bağlamında Ekoterapötik Mekânlar
Günümüz kentlerinde sanayileşme, nüfus artışı, göç, gelişmişlik düzeyi, ulusal politikalar gibi çeşitli faktörler doğrultusunda gerçekleşen yoğun, planlanmamış ve çarpık kentleşmeye bağlı pek çok sorun görülmektedir. Bu sorunların çevresel kaynaklar, kent mekanı ve kentin yaratıcı ve yürütücü unsuru insan üzerinde neden olduğu etkiler on yıllardır pek çok disiplinde tartışılmaktadır. Dolayısıyla insan ve çevre arasındaki karşılıklı ve kuvvetli etkileşim, insanın bedensel ve psikolojik sağlığını, kentsel tasarımda ele alınması kaçınılmaz konulardan biri yapmaktadır. Özellikle çevre psikolojisi alanında yer bulan insan psikolojisi ve çevre arasındaki ilişki, kentsel sorunlar konusuyla ilgili olarak ekopsikoloji yaklaşımında karşılık bulmaktadır (Rozsak, 1992). İnsan ve doğa arasında yeniden kurulacak bağın çevresel sorunların çözümündeki rolüne dikkat çeken yaklaşım, bu bağın kurulabilmesi için ise bireylerin doğal alanlarda vakit geçirmesi ile elde ettikleri ekoterapi hizmetinin gerekliliğinden bahsetmektedir. Bu gereklilik doğrultusunda bu çalışma, kentin ekoterapi hizmeti sağlayan fonksiyonları ve özelliklerinin araştırılmasını amaçlamaktadır. Bu amaçla ekopsikoloji ve ekoterapi konu başlıklarında sistematik literatür taraması gerçekleştirilmiş, ulaşılan 37 makale içerisinde terapötik mekânların türleri, özellikleri, faydaları ve terapötik aktiviteler incelenmiştir. İncelenen 4 eksen dâhilinde anahtar kelimeler halinde çekilerek gruplanan tanımlar söylem analizine tabi tutulmuştur. Belirlenen fayda, tür, özellik ve aktivitelerin mekânının niteliklerini belirleme konusundaki en önemli araçlardan olan kentsel tasarım süreçlerine sunabileceği katkılar ve dâhil olabileceği aşamalar tartışılmıştır.
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