Didem KANDEMİR
(Maltepe Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Yüksek Okulu, İstanbul, Türkiye)
Serpil YÜKSEL
(Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Fakültesi, Konya, Türkiye)
Yıl: 2021Cilt: 8Sayı: 1ISSN: 2148-3590 / 2149-2956Sayfa Aralığı: 85 - 92Türkçe

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Ameliyat Kaynaklı Basınç Yaralanmalarını Önlemede Etkili Kanıt Temelli Girişimler
Cerrahi girişim geçiren hastalar, basınç yaralanmaları açısındanyüksek risk altındadır. Özellikle uzun süren cerrahi girişimlersırasında basıncın etkisiyle dokuda oluşan değişim, ameliyat sonrası3-7. günlerde ciddi basınç yaralanmaları ile sonuçlanabilmektedir.Bu derlemede, ameliyat kaynaklı basınç yaralanmalarını önlemedeetkili kanıt temelli girişimleri literatür ışığında tartışmak amaçlandı.Derlemede, elektronik veri tabanları taranarak elde edilen, 2006-2020 yılları arasında yayınlanmış, tam metnine ulaşılabilen,ameliyat kaynaklı basınç yaralanmaları ile ilgili çalışma ve rehberlerincelendi. Ameliyat sırasında basınç yaralanması oluşma sıklığı%1.3-51 arasında değişmekte olup, tüm hastane kaynaklı basınçyaralanmalarının %45’ini oluşturmaktadır. Ameliyat kaynaklı basınçyaralanmalarını önlemede etkili kanıt temelli girişimler; riskdeğerlendirmesi, pozisyon verme, koruyucu örtü ve destek yüzeykullanımı başlıkları altında ele alınmıştır. Bu yaralanmaları önlemekamacıyla öncelikle uzun ameliyat süresi, hipotermi ve hipotansifataklar gibi basınç yaralanması riskini artıran faktörlerbelirlenmelidir. Ameliyat masasında, basıncı dağıtan destekyüzeyler kullanılmalıdır. Ameliyat sırasında hastaya basınçyaralanması riskini azaltacak şekilde pozisyon verilmeli ve topuklarelevasyona alınmalıdır. Gerekirse, topuk süspansiyon cihazlarıkullanılmalıdır. Ameliyat sonrası dönemde mutlaka ameliyatsırasında verilen pozisyondan farklı bir pozisyon verilmelidir. Sonuçolarak, ameliyat kaynaklı basınç yaralanmalarını önlemede, bireyselve cerrahi girişim ilişkili risk faktörlerinin dikkatle değerlendirilmesive önleme girişimlerinin bu faktörler ve kanıt temelli girişimlerdikkate alınarak planlanması önemlidir.
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