Süleyman TUĞRUL
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi, Deniz Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Mersin, Türkiye)
Valeria IBELLO
(Adres Yazılmamış)
Hasan ÖREK
(Adres Yazılmamış)
Arzu KARAHAN
(Girilmedi)
Proje Grubu: TÜBİTAK ÇAYDAG Sayfa Sayısı: 198Proje No: 115Y629Proje Bitiş Tarihi: 15.10.2018Türkçe

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Denizlerdeki Mikrobiyal Reaksiyonların Yeni Yaklaşımlar Kullanılarak Araştırılması: Genetik, Biyojeokimya ve Modelleme
ODTÜ Deniz Bilimleri Enstitüsü tarafından Mersin Körfezi?nde 1997 yılından bu yana sürdürülen Erdemli Zaman Serisi (ETS) programı dahilinde ölçülen degiskenlere ek olarak, bu proje kapsamında toplam su kolonu derinligi 200 metre olan istasyonda altı farklı derinlikten bir yıl boyunca aylık periyotlarda deniz suyu örneklemesi yapılmıstır. Bu örneklerde yeni nesil dizileme yönteminin kullanıldıgı amplikon dizilemesi (metagenomik) analizleri yapılarak biyojeokimyasal döngülerde önemli roller oynayan bakteri türleri tayin edilmis, topluluk yapıları ve bolluklarının zamansal degisimi belirlenmistir. Taksalar arasında Pelagibacteriacea?ya ait olan SAR11 kladının tüm derinlikler ve aylarda baskınlıgı gözlenmistir. Bu kladın üyeleri fonksiyonel olarak organik maddeyi oksitleyerek karbondioksit üreten heterotrofik bakterilerdir ve dolayısıyla biyojeokimyasal döngülerin remineralizasyon ayagında rol almaktadırlar. SAR11 kladının bollugu yıl boyunca %22 ve %64 arasında degisim göstermistir. SAR11 kladının ekotipleri olan Clade Ia ve Clade Ib ise derinlige baglı yayılım göstermektedirler. Clade Ia yüzey sularında baskınlık gösterirken Clade Ib?nin derin sularda komüniteye katkısı daha fazla olmaktadır. Bunun yanı sıra komünite yapısını belirleyen en önemli çevresel faktörler sıcaklık, nitrat, görünür oksijen kullanımı, sezon ve ısıklı tabaka derinligi olarak belirlenmistir. Sezonlar arasındaki filogenetik çesitlilik, belirgin olarak farklı bulunmustur. Bunun yanı sıra bakterilerin aktif metabolizmalarını tayin etmek için sezonluk olarak mRNA örneklemesi yapılmıs ve örnekler metatranskriptom yöntemi ile analiz edilmistir. Bu yöntem aracılıgı ile bakteriler tarafından gerçeklestirilen biyokimyasal reaksiyonların aktif ve inaktif oldukları dönemler saptanmıstır. Nitrifikasyonun ilk basamagı olan amonyak oksitilenmesi Kasım ayında oldukça yüksek bulunmustur. Ancak nitrifikasyonun ikinci basamagı olan nitritin nitrata oksitlenme sürecine ait olan belirteç genlere herhangi bir örnekde rastlanmamıstır. Sisteme yeni azot girdisi saglayan azot fiksasyonuna mRNA ifadelerinde rastlanmamıstır. Metatranskriptom yöntemine elde edilen bulgulara ek olarak nitrifikasyon ve azot fiksasyon süreçleri izotop yöntemi ile de her ay dört farklı derinlikten yapılan örneklemeler ile arastırılmıstır. Nitrifikasyonun sadece afotik bölgede gerçeklesmedigi görülmüstür. Azot fiksasyonu belirteç genlerine rastlanmadıgı halde izotop yöntemi ile yapılan çalısmada azot fiksasyonu tüm yıl boyunca ve tüm derinliklerde çok düsük de olsa tespit edilmistir. Azot döngüsüne ek olarak, metatranskriptom çalısması ile kısıtlı inorganik fosfat varlıgında aktive olan alkalin fosfataz?ın sezonluk degisimi de göstermistir. Buna göre, ortamda düsük fosfat konsantrasyonları gözlemlendiginde bakterilerin diger fosfor kaynaklarına yöneldigi gözlemlenmistir. Bunlara ek olarak denizdeki biyokimyasal döngüleri sayısal olarak temsil eden ve tahminleri direkt olarak ölçümlerle karsılastırılabilecek bir modelleme sistemi bölgeye uyarlanmıstır. Bu modelleme sistemi bir parametre tahmin algoritması ve proje kapsamında yapılan ölçüm verileri ile birlestirilerek modelde reaksiyon hızlarını kontrol eden parametrelerin tahmini yapılmıstır. Bu tahmin sonucunda ortaya çıkan nitrifikasyon hızları izotop yöntemi ile yapılan nitrifikasyon hızları ile karsılastırılmıstır. Bu karsılastırma reaksiyon hızları tahmini için modelleme sistemi ve parametre tahmini kullanımının zor olan izotop yöntemine alternatif bir yöntem olma potansiyelini göstermistir. Yapılan bir yıllık gözlemler, kullanılan izotop yöntemleri ve modelleme yaklasımı bölgedeki bilimsel bilgiye önemli katkılar saglamıstır. Bakteri topluluk yapıları Türkiye kıyılarında ilk defa kültür bagımsız yöntemlerle ortaya konmustur. Bunun yanı sıra izotop yöntemleri ve yapılan metatranscriptom çalısması bölgede azot fiksasyonunun baskın bir süreç olmadıgını ortaya koymustur. Biyojeokimyasal bir modelleme sistemi basarıyla bölgeye uyarlanmıstır.
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